Ingrid Savage February 21, 2021 Map
Geographic maps are abstract representations of the world. It is, of course, this abstraction that makes them useful. Lewis Carroll made this point humorously in Sylvie and Bruno with his mention of a fictional map that had "the scale of a mile to the mile". A character notes some practical difficulties with this map and states that "we now use the country itself, as its own map, and I assure you it does nearly as well". This concept is elaborated in a one-paragraph story by Jorge Luis Borges, generally known in English as "On Exactitude in Science". Road maps are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the British Ordnance Survey (now a civilian government agency internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work).
The key is knowledge, so you will need to learn as much as you can about the individual maps you are hunting for. I suggest you choose a subject of cartography or a historical period you may interested in learning about. Consider maps made during the American civil war, maps of the Republic of Texas, maps of Scotland if you are of Scottish ancestry or maps of Rome if you went there on honeymoon. For example, your adoptive child is from China then you can concentrate on maps of China. The options are limitless. The idea is that within each field there will be a few fairly rare and desirable maps that can fetch some good money when sold at auction. When you have become acquainted with the current sale price of your selection of maps you will need to consider condition and editions. By this I mean a specific edition, of a specific year for a map in good condition with no tears, water stains, major repairs and has good color. By the time you have done the things described above you will have a fair amount of knowledge about the world of antique maps. You will now be starting your hunt. In your hunt you should go to all the consignment shops and thrift stores in your area. Visit antique stores and old book stores and ask to see if they have old maps. By doing this you will get to handle antique maps and get a feel for them.
The OS Explorer map series is the most popular choice and an essential for longer or more complex walks or those going off the beaten track. It is highly detailed and shows all rights of way, footpaths, landscape and interest features and contours. Every house, public facility or point of interest is covered giving you all the tools you need to locate yourself as well as finding that nearest pub for a drink after a hard days walking! The scale is 1:25000 - that is 1cm on the map equates to 250m on the ground (4cm per km or 2 1/2 inches to a mile) The OS Landranger map series covers a wider area with a scale of 1:50000 (thats 1cm on the map to every 500m on the ground, 2cm per km or 1 1/4 inches to the mile). This makes it handy for planning a day out over a broader area and for getting a good picture of where you are going and it shows the main footpaths and rights of way as well as tourist information and points of interest. However it doesnt contain as much detail as the OS Explorer range and if you are going off into the wilds you will need the detail of the Explorer map to navigate with confidence.
For example, when you use these maps on finding the cheap hotels, or specific restaurants on a certain area, these places will be plotted on the map to give you the idea where they are exactly. Then once you have chosen the best place you want to go to, you can ask the maps to give you driving directions. Live Traffic reports may also be available to set your expectations. Once your customized map is in place, print it, and you are off to go. And with Yahoo! Maps and Mapquest, you also have options to send the map to your phone or car. If you want to know the estimated time to travel by just walking, Google Maps give you such feature. It also give you directions using public transportation systems. So far, the public transit feature is mostly available in metropolitan areas. Aerial Map or the Satellite View images of the area is another common feature. Once you zoom in a place with the aerial view, youll get to see the contour of the mountains, which parts are mostly covered with plants, and know which areas are more populated. But aside from Satellite View, birds eye view is also available in Live Maps, as well as 3D map within Live Maps. Google Maps, on the other hand, is known now for its Street View maps. It offers it users street photos as if they are really driving or walking on the street. It wont be too long though that Live Maps may also offer such feature.
3. Hold the map up to the light to look at the paper. Most maps made before the 1820s were made on hand-made paper. This paper was made by artisans who used a wire mesh to hold up the paper pulp. This wire mesh leaves a visible grid called "chain links" that are visible against a strong light source. Paper makers often had a watermark to identify themselves that is sometimes visible on bigger maps. If you dont have chain links on a map dated from the 1820s or earlier, then you have a map reproduction. 4. The majority of antique maps were taken out of old atlases, because of this there is often a fold in the middle of a map. This fold is where the map was bound in the book. Also atlas maps are worn from use at the corners, especially the right hand top or bottom corners. This is where most people would flip the pages. If your map doesnt have a center fold or looks too new, then it probably is.
You will see a lot more of the city of Barcelona if you travel by bus. The buses operate regular services in well maintained, clean and air conditioned vehicles. It is also much easier to get around by bus than trying to drive a car around the city centre. The main bus station in Barcelona is Estació del Nord which is located near the Arc de Triomf metro station. You can get there via subway: L1, Arc de Triomf from the metro, on bus number 54 or Renfe Cercanias trains 1,3 and 4. You can travel on the bus from Barcelona to a number of places in Spain and normally no pre-booking is required. The long distance buses operate out of Barcelona Nord bus station: Barcelona-San Andrés, Avenida Meridiania, 416 and Barcelona-Sants, Calle Viriato. Alsa are Spains leading coach and bus company.
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