Verna Larson January 13, 2021 Map
Maps are so ubiquitous that we forget that we use maps on daily basis. The signage, the road mile stones, the directions that ask are basically maps in the making. Yes we make maps in our minds. Once you put these on paper or on electronic media, these become hard copy or soft copy maps. Maps basically fall in two categories, the raster and the vector maps. Raster maps are images of paper maps, it can be said to be similar to photographs. Can you edit them, yes but very difficult to control each aspect of raster maps layout and designs. Then how do we edit the maps and control all design and layout aspect? The answer is vector maps, these are intelligent maps which are basically made of three entities, points, lines and shapes. The points are symbols of hospitals, schools etc. The lines represent all entities which are denoted by paths like roads, railways, streams, contours etc. The area or shape comes in for parks, large water bodies, and even your home or office building if is a small scale map. Yes small scale map; smaller the scale larger is the detail on the map.
It is estimated that almost $800 billion will be spent on travel and tourism in 2011 and nearly two billion business and leisure trips will be made in the United States alone. How will these travelers discover where to stay, eat, shop and play? How will they learn about the businesses in your town? When I travel or visit a new place I look for fun and informative maps to help me plan my trip before I go. I want to learn a little about the area, find places to stay, and know what to expect when I get there. Once I arrive at my destination I need an easy way to find nearby attractions, restaurants and other businesses. Getting a sense of the neighborhood and some background information makes my visit more enjoyable. An interactive map can display photos, videos and descriptions of hotels, points of interest, historic sites, shopping areas or museums, and you can click right from the map to advertiser web sites to book accommodations or get more details. Does your community have an interactive map to promote tourism?
Internal cross links between lower level keywords are less common in mind maps and concept maps than they are in association maps, with the branching tree structure tending to take precedence. With concept and mind maps, the relationship of each word to the overarching theme remains paramount. In association maps, however, the link becomes the key, and, as stated, the process of deciding which type of link joins keywords together is a valuable part of ascertaining correct understanding. If you cant link two keywords effectively, you havent understood how they are related to one another! This pairing and linking process allows a jigsaw like approach to the development of the knowledge map, and enables a student always to be working from a point of understanding. Most interestingly, when used to develop a map for a new topic where one is not an expert, it is possible to identify the high level terms which will take precendence at the top of a concept map once an association map has been developed. This is because they are the ones with the most linkages. Development of an association map therefore gives a useful mechanism for allowing students to take on the expert role and develop their own concept maps, even when they are not fully confident in a subject. Drawing any of the three types of maps involves much more active learning than just using ready produced ones in my experience so this is a definite bonus. In summary, all mapping techniques provide a powerful method for organising key ideas within a topic or sub-topic. Mind mapping allows colourful creativity, concept mapping provides the confidence of professional correctness, and association mapping always lets you get started somewhere, but I have a sneaky suspicion, that the real power of visual mapping is the process your brain goes through when you develop those non-verbal links for yourself, so get a pencil and get started!
For instance, you can have the map of India, map of Delhi, map of Haryana, or the map of Gurgaon. Maps of cities show the roads, rails and other urban transport routes, landmarks like rivers, lakes, historic monuments, important institutions, bazaars, etc. For instance, in the Map of Gurgaon you can find roads like NH 8, Basai Road, Railway Road, Sohna Road, Mahrauli Road, Old Delhi Road, etc. You can find localities like DLF Phase I, II, III and IV, Sushant Lok, Wazirabad, Islampur, Patel Nagar, Udyog vihar, Palam Vihar, Palam Vihar, Jhasra, HSEB Colony, etc. You can easily locate in the Gurgaon map the various institutions, establishments and landmarks such as: Apra Motels, Bristol Hotel, Fortune Hotel, Claremont Hotel, Park Plaza, etc. Tourists and visitors to the city find it convenient to locate the various places in the city with the help of the map of Gurgaon.
Though a globe model of the earth is the most common version of the earths surface, it would often create a lot of confusions to combine the political and physical maps together. Thats why maps are created for different purposes, which use map projection to depict the earths surface on a plane using a wide variety of scales. Digital maps also use map projections to present data on a computer screen. Different maps use different map projections based on what purpose the map will serve and the scale thats suitable for the purpose. For example, a type of map projection may show severe distortions while mapping the whole country, but may serve as an excellent choice for a countys detailed map that aims to cover a large area. The type of map projections also influences some of the design elements of a map. While some are suitable for small regions, some other projections are good for mapping areas with a huge north-south or east-west extent, or to cover all countries of the world.
Conformal projection: These projections maintain angular relationships and show accurate shapes while covering small areas. Such maps are useful for navigational or meteorological purposes where angular relationships are important. Equidistant projection: Maps that maintain accurate distances along given lines or from the center of the projection are based on this principle of equidistant projection. Such maps are used for navigation and for radio and seismic mapping. The Equirectangular projection and the Equidistant Conic projection are two examples of this category. Azimuthal (or zenithal) projection: A projection that maintains accurate angular relationships and directions from a given central point use this projection. Maps for aeronautical purposes use this principle. The Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection and the Gnomonic projection are examples of how azimuthal projection is used for map making.
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